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This is a LONG discussion on the phenol-sulphotransferase issue, but 
it is very informative and I recommend you print it out and study it 
if you think your child might have this problem.

This is a condition that affects 80% to 90% of the children with 
autism. It is vital that you understand the symptoms, and if they 
affect your child, you must "unload the donkey". PST (phenol-
sulfotransferase) is a Phase II enzyme that detoxifies leftover 
hormones and a wide variety of toxic molecules, such as phenols and 
amines that are produced in the body (and even in the gut by 
bacteria, yeast, and other fungi) as well as food dyes and chemicals. 
These reactions include the breakdown of bilirubin and biliverdin, 
which are the breakdown products of hemoglobin. There are many 
varieties of phenols. This may indicate why children's intolerances 
vary. Remember, Bolte notes that tetanus infection of the intestines 
leads to the formation of toxic phenols, and states that these are 
particularly formed by overgrowth of the Clostridium family of 
bacteria. The toxins formed can peel the lining of the colon right 
off the organ, and lead to an explosive, debilitating form of 
diarrhea. She notes that tetanus also attacks the Purkinje cells of 
the brain potentially reducing the production of the amino acid GABA, 
a calming neurotransmitter known to affect speech. 

"The PST enzyme is only one of many sulfotransferases, and various 
other body chemicals can increase the quantity of some 
sulfotransferases, and that would increase their activity....Sulfate 
must be grabbed by any sulfotransferase before the enzyme can attach 
it to something else, like phenols or MHPG (3 methoxy-4-
hydroxyphenylglycol, a natural breakdown product of a class of 
neurotransmitters called catecholamines). If the PST enzyme activity 
towards something is low, you can boost it by two approaches. The 
first is to increase the amount of sulfate available to it. The 
second is to increase the amount of the enzyme so it has an easier 
job finding the available sulfate."-Susan Owens.

The PST enzyme links an oxidized sulfur molecule (a sulfate) to these 
various toxic substances to solubilize them so the kidneys can 
dispose of them. Obviously, if sulfate is low or missing, this can't 
happen effectively. Hence, the problem can be twofold: there may be a 
lack of phenol-sulfotransferase enzymes, or of the sulfates (due to 
the absence of protein and of sulfur carrying raw vegetables in the 
diet, the poor absorption of sulfur from the diet, a failure to 
metabolize sulfur into sulfate form, or increased urinary excretion 
of sulfite and sulfate). 

Dr. Rosemary Waring's research shows that the lack of sulfate is the 
primary problem in 73% of these children (another study found low 
levels in 92%), but all of those Waring checked had a low PST level 
too. Similar sulfate deficiencies have been reported in people with 
migraine, rheumatoid arthritis, jaundice, and other allergic 
conditions all of which are anecdotally reported as common in the 
families of people with autism. Adequate sulfoxidation requires 
adequate supplies of B-vitamins, especially vitamin B6. The PST 
enzymes are inhibited or overloaded by chocolate, bananas, orange 
juice, vanillin, and food colorants such as tartrazine. Removal of 
these from the diet and supplementation of sulfates may well relieve 
all these symptoms. The lack of sulfation could well be due to the 
largely carbohydrate diet of most of these children. It is likely a 
combination of all these things. In any case, toxic compounds of 
these aforementioned chemicals can build to dangerous levels. A high 
value for the tIAG (?) as well as a high reading for DHPPA (rather 
HPHPA-a phenolic metabolite of tyrosine) both indicate a PST problem. 

There are two pathways by which the Phase II enzymes process these 
toxins. One attaches the sulfates as mentioned, and the other 
attaches glucuronide. Dr. Waring has found that in autistic patients 
there is not nearly enough sulfate to glucuronate ratio. She and her 
associates feel that the "leaky gut", that causes a need for a Gf/Cf 
diet, is caused by this lack of adequate sulfate to provide sulfation 
of the glucosaminoglycans (sulfated sugars). They found that the 
glucosaminoglycans (gags) in the gut were very under sulfated, and 
that this causes a thickening of the basement membrane of the gut. 
IGF (insulin-like growth factor) is important for cell growth. IGF-1 
(which is reduced in zinc deficiency) increases the incorporation of 
sulfate in glucosaminoglycans. 

Unfortunately, a lack of sulfated gags in the kidneys will allow loss 
of these sulfates. There is often found low plasma sulfate and high 
urine sulfate and high urinary thiosulfate as if the kidneys are not 
able to retain (recycle) sulfate. This needed retention requires the 
work of a transporter that has been found in "in vitro" studies to be 
blocked almost completely by mercury and by excess chromium (but not 
as thoroughly). One study found urinary sulfite to be elevated due to 
a lack of molybdenum in 36%. Supplementing moly showed improvements 
in clinical symptoms. Sugar increases the amounts of calcium, 
oxalate, uric acid, and glucosaminoglycans being wasted in the urine.

Sulfates have a negative charge and repel each other, so that charge 
forms a barrier on the outside of the cell called the matrix, or the 
glycocalyx. Sulfate is often found in the glycoprotein film also. 
Glycoprotein is a sugar/protein film that enables cell-cell 
communication. This film is on all cells of the body, so if systemic 
sulfate is low, you most likely have a big problem that is quite 
general to the whole body. Specifically, the more densely sulfated 
the GAGs, the more they can resist all kinds of infection. These 
sulfate molecules govern or influence the ability of the cell to 
produce its unique set of specialized proteins. It is not something 
you want to be operating from a deficit, yet that is the condition of 
most autistic children. 

Dr. Waring found that 92% of autistic children seem to be wasting 
sulfate in the urine; for blood plasma levels are typically low and 
urinary levels are high. There is also an abnormal cysteine to 
sulfate ratio. Cysteine is the amino acid that should be used to make 
sulfate, so it appears that the sulfate is probably being utilized 
far faster than the cysteine can be converted, leaving a deficit of 
sulfate (sugar wastes it), or the cysteine is not being metabolized 
to sulfate. That may cause the cysteine to build up to toxic levels. 
Cysteine is formed from the essential amino acid methionine. 
Homocysteine, an intermediate between methionine and cysteine, and 
cysteine are powerful excitotoxins. In the aged, and in chronic 
disease, methionine is not efficiently converted to cysteine, but 
builds homocysteine. This can create a deficiency of this vital amino 
acid, cysteine, and a lack of sulfate. A deficiency of cysteine, or a 
failure to metabolized it to sulfate, will produce multiple chemical 
sensitivities and food allergies. Being a major part of the powerful 
antioxidants alpha lipoic acid and glutathione, a deficiency of 
cysteine, or a failure to metabolize it into these antioxidants, 
would greatly affect the liver's ability to detoxify, and would lead 
to destruction throughout the body by free radicals This would also 
allow buildup of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, mercury, and 
aluminum. Supplementation of vitamin B2, B6, B12, folic acid, 
magnesium, and TMG may normalize metabolism of methionine into 
cysteine, but vitamin C is needed to prevent cysteine (which 
contributes its sulfur more readily) from converting to cystine, its 
oxidized form.
What could be one source of interference with sulfation? Swimming! 
High concentrations of chlorate were detected in samples from a 
number of pools; in one case as high as 40 mg/l. Higher chlorate 
concentrations were associated with those pools using hypochlorite 
solution as a disinfecting agent, while relatively low chlorate 
concentrations were found in pools treated with gaseous chlorine. 
Chlorate IS the biological substance of choice to block sulfation. 
Additionally, chlorate is known to inhibit hematopoiesis [the making 
of new blood cells], a problem with many of our kids. Additionally, 
hypochlorite reportedly combines with any phenolic compound, even in 
very dilute solutions, to form an aromatic compound that can react in 
the body. This combining of chemicals can be very toxic to 
susceptible individuals. One Mom found that an Epsom salts bath 
immediately following eliminated after swimming problems in behavior. 
So, if you must swim, do the bath immediately after coming from the 
pool. For home pools, one Mother reports, "An ionizer cuts down 
chlorine use by 70-80%. Since installing this, we don't see the 
reactions anymore."

The excess-cysteine/low-sulfate condition that Waring observed may be 
because of a deficiency of the amino acid histidine that can be run 
low by seasonal allergies and the medications taken to treat them. 
Metal toxicities, common in these kids, can run it low. Experimental 
deficiency of histidine causes an excess of free iron in the blood. 
This can adversely affect the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), the 
essential nutritional components of the enzyme being histidine and 
iron. A deficiency of this amino acid, possibly caused by allergies, 
heavy metals poisoning, and medications, not only affects HCl 
production (histidine delivers zinc to the cells, and together they 
produce HCl), but it will likely cause a toxic build up of the amino 
acid cysteine, and a lack of sufficient taurine and sulfate 
contributing to the PST problem. High histidine lowers zinc and 
copper by chelating them from the body. Supplementing taurine, the 
sulfur containing amino-acid that is at the end of the metabolic 
chain, has been helpful in meeting this need for taurine; and, being 
the immediate precursor, may supply needed sulfates. Taurine is 
reported to have an anti-opioid effect (Braverman 1987).
Those with inadequate protein in the diet, or with poor assimilation, 
resulting in a deficiency of histidine and other nutrients, form 
poorly sulfated GAGS robbing the cells of ability to resist infection 
(that describes 100% of these children). Additionally, it produces 
dysbiosis (flora imbalance) in the gut. Those with chronic infection 
shed and replace GAGs so quickly that inadequate sulfate is available 
even with adequate protein intake. Vitamin A deficiency has been 
shown to produce an accelerated turnover of GAGs as well as their 
undersulfation. When the live viral, measles vaccine is given, it 
depletes the children of their existing supply of Vitamin A. The 
measles virus hidden in the gut is able to create a chronic vitamin A 
deficiency. Natural Vitamin A (cis form) is important for activation 
of T and B cells for long-term immune memory to develop, and it is 
necessary for optimal Natural Killer Cell function, Cis Vitamin A can 
bypass blocked G-protein pathways and turn on central retinoid 
receptors. Available zinc controls the amount of vitamin A the liver 
will release. 

In one study, the urinary GAGs changed to normal when the vitamin A 
deficiency was corrected, but if protein starvation caused the 
undersulfation of GAGs, the urinary GAGs did not return to normal 
with adequate protein intake, but did improve quite a bit. Most 
autistic children are vitamin A deficient. Do you or your child have 
bumps on shoulders, thighs, elbows, and calves? Supplement with pure 
amino acids, Seacure™, Brewer's yeast, or desiccated liver for their 
protein, and with Evening Primrose oil (for its GLA), and cod-liver 
oil for its EPA, DHA, and vitamins A and D. Seacure™ may help.

It was Dr. Andrew Wakefield's work that showed that at the core of 
the problem might be an inflammation of the gut caused by a chronic 
measles infection. Dr. Wakefield's work is being vindicated by other 
researchers. Under oath before Congress on April 6, 2000, Professor 
John O'Leary told how his state-of-the-art laboratory had identified 
the measles virus, something that certainly should not have been 
there, in samples taken from the intestines of 24 of the 25 patients. 
From Japan: "The sequences obtained from the patients with Crohn's 
disease shared the characteristics with wild-strain virus. The 
sequences obtained from the patients with ulcerative colitis and 
children with autism were consistent with being vaccine strains. The 
results were concordant with the exposure history of the patients. 
Persistence of measles virus was confirmed in PBMC (blood cells) in 
some patients with chronic intestinal inflammation"-Kawashima H, Mori 
T, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Wakefield A, Department of 
Paediatrics, Tokyo Medical University, Japan. From Canada: "The 
presence of measles virus in the brain tissue was confirmed by 
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide 
sequence in the nucleoprotein and fusion gene regions was identical 
to that of the Moraten and Schwarz vaccine strains; the fusion gene 
differed from known genotype A wild-type viruses"-Bitnun A, Shannon 
P, Durward A, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, Graham C, Wang E, Ford-Jones EL, 
Cox P, Becker L, Fearon M, Petric M, Tellier R; Department of 
Critical Care Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada. Clin Infect Dis 1999 Oct;29(4):855-61. From 
Sweden: "This study provides evidence that measles virus can spread 
through axonal pathways in the brain. The findings obtained in the 
gene-manipulated mice point out that a compromised immune state of 
the host may potentiate targeting of virus to the limbic system 
through olfactory projections"-Urbanska EM; Chambers BJ; Ljunggren 
HG; Norrby E; Kristensson K, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska 
Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. 

The gut sheds sulfated glucosaminoglycans during inflammation which 
could account for the low levels there and the high levels in urine. 
This leads to a "Leaky Gut" condition, and to the excess opioid 
problem. Not only do macrophages (scavenging white blood cells) eat 
GAGs and release inorganic sulfate, there is a transporter the 
intestines use to absorb sulfate from the diet, called the DRA 
transporter. Its levels will decrease five-to-seven fold when the gut 
is inflamed. That would make it extremely difficult to absorb 
adequate sulfate from food or from oral supplements. The problem is a 
nutritional one, but it is not one easily solved by oral 
supplementation of a missing substance. The gut must be healed.

Since sulfur intake is low, and its oxidation is slow in many 
autistic children, sulfate is low, and PST activity is slower than it 
would be otherwise. It would seem that this sub optimality of 
sulphotransferase activity is a function of low plasma sulfate levels 
rather than of deficits in the actual enzyme. Cellular level 
enzymatic effects of mercury's binding with proteins include blockage 
of sulfur oxidation processes and of the neurotransmitter amino 
acids. These have been found to be significant factors in many 
autistics. Thus, mercury, and any foodstuff that requires or uses up 
sulfate ions during its metabolism, will make the situation worse. 
These foodstuffs include foods that supply neurotransmitters, like 
bananas (serotonin), chocolate (phenylethylamine), and cheese 
(tyramine), apple juice (and one mother reports her child drank a 
quart a day!), citrus fruit juices, and paracetamol (Tylenol™). For 
instance, one or two minutes after a dose of Tylenol™, the entire 
supply of sulfate in the liver is gone! 

In fact, any chemicals with a high proportion of phenolic groupings 
will have this effect, and will enhance the problems referred to 
above. Many coloring materials, whether of natural or synthetic 
origin, possess phenolic groupings. Phenol, an organic compound, has 
other names such as hydroxybenzene. If the PST enzyme is deficient or 
sulfoxidation is lacking in some 70% to 80% of autistic kids as some 
say, it behooves mothers to seriously heed the information in this 
section, and to carefully guard their children from certain obvious 
sources of trouble.
It is interesting to note Dr. Waring's statement that those with the 
PST/low sulfation problem have central nervous system problems from 
the toxic amines. For example migraine sufferers usually have low PST 
activity, and are readily affected by dietary "triggers", especially 
those with amines. Compounds such as flavonoids (red wine and citrus 
fruits), aged cheese, beers, chocolate, and strong odors inhibit PST 
leading to headache in the less resistant. Apple juice, citrus 
fruits, chocolate, and paracetamol (Tylenol™) were precisely those 
that were known to precipitate migraine attacks in susceptible 
individuals. It should be noted that many multivitamin supplements, 
grapeseed extract, Pycnogenol™, Quercetin, and other antioxidants 
contain high amounts of flavonoids. Quercetin is found in 78% of the 
foods. It is useful in hay fever (suppress the histamine release), 
some forms of cardiovascular disease, and it chelates metals to 
prevent oxidation. It decreases vascular fragility, but stimulates 
adrenaline release (decreasing thymus weight), reduces general 
metabolism (reduces temperature and oxygen consumption), suppresses 
thyroid activity, inhibits p450 (Phase I) liver enzyme activity, and 
it is linked with male impotence. From this list of negatives, one 
can see it should not be used in quantity for long term. 

Modifications of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and DA metabolites 
[homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)] were 
assessed at urinary levels. Responders and nonresponders showed a 
significant decrease of urinary 5-HT levels on fenfluramine (appetite 
suppressant related to amphetamine). The main differences between the 
two groups of subjects were found with HVA, the major metabolite of 
dopamine. Fenfluramine (an amphetamine) significantly increased HVA 
levels in responders whereas no significant modification was found in 
nonresponders. Moreover, the initial level of HVA (lower in 
responders) significantly differentiated the two groups. These 
results suggest that the clinical response to fenfluramine could be 
related to the dopaminergic action of this drug and that urinary DA 
metabolite levels could be considered as indicators of the 
responsiveness to fenfluramine treatment in children with autistic 
behavior-Barthelemy C; Bruneau N; Jouve J; Martineau J; Muh JP; 
Lelord G Source: J Autism Dev Disord, 1989 Jun, 19:2, 241-54. Drugs 
such as Ritalin™ and ADDerol™ affect dopamine activity, and thus 
stimulate the part of the brain that monitors the arousal system, 
resulting in better regulation. There are safer ways to build 
dopamine than psychostimulants, amphetamines and alcohol. In France, 
scientists found administration of NADH (ENADA™) caused more than a 
40% increase in production of dopamine and norepinephrine, which are 
vital for strength, coordination, movement, cognitive function, mood, 
and sex drive (Birkmayer 1996). The amino acid tyrosine builds 
dopamine and norepinephrine also.

"... dopamine sulphotransferase (ST) activity was inhibited strongly 
by (+/-)-catechin, (+)-catechin, octyl gallate, tartrazine (yellow 
#5), and vanillin (synthetic vanilla). Sulphation of the xenobiotic 
steroid (foreign to the body) 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) was 
inhibited by vanillin, erythrosin B, and octyl gallate [antioxidant 
used in margarine]....Vanillin was found to inhibit 50% of liver EE2 
ST activity ..."-Common Food Additives are Potent Inhibitors of Human 
liver 17 Alpha-ethinyloestradiol and Dopamine Sulphotransferases.-
Bamforth KJ, Jones AL, Roberts RC, Coughtrie MW, Biochem Pharmacol 
1993 Nov 17;46(10):1713-20.

There are a number of consequences attributable to PST/sulfate 
deficiency including effects upon the impaired breakdown and 
metabolism of classical neurotransmitters such as serotonin and 
dopamine; impaired breakdown and metabolism of the bile pigments 
bilirubin and biliverdin; impaired action of the hormone CCK on CCKA 
receptors which would result in decreased secretion of pancreatic 
enzymes and of bile from the gall bladder and biliary tract into the 
intestines. This would result in low uptake of certain vitamins and 
other nutrients from the intestines; reduced activity of gastrin (and 
subsequent reduced secretion of stomach acid, mucus, and pepsin in 
the stomach), and, probably, reduced production of secretin farther 
downstream. Secretin (esp. at high concentrations) inhibits the 
histamine releasing action of gastrin and pentagastrin reducing HCl 
as the stomach empties.
Because there is a lack of serotonin available to the brain, which 
causes many of the most distressing symptoms of autism, it seems 
reasonable to build the available serotonin by providing its 
precursor 5-HTP. The use of 25-50 mg three or four times a day 
(unless it causes a drowsiness that interferes with school) should be 
most beneficial. If drowsiness interferes with school, reduce the 
amount and/or give it later in the day. Giving 100 mg one to four 
hours before bedtime has safely improved the sleep of many. 
Nevertheless, a PST child may not tolerate it. If hyperactivity or 
sleeplessness is observed, please discontinue.

Those with these PST deficits cannot readily excrete the phenols, 
amines, and other listed toxic substances. These substances are 
strongly acidic, and they exert toxic effects in the brain, where 
normally certain enzymes prevent their accumulation. They build up to 
abnormal levels and interfere with the neurotransmitters serotonin, 
dopamine, and noradrenaline among other things. Symptoms of 
PST/sulfate deficiency are excessive thirst, normal urination, night 
sweats, odorous bed clothes, black eye shadows, facial flushing, and 
red ears. These vary with the degree or level of toxic buildup. 
Certain foods may cause fevers, and some, especially those taking 
Paracetamol™ (Tylenol™), may go up to 24 hours without urination. 

A phenolic compound may cause a variety of different symptoms in 
various individuals. There is evidence of immune suppression on 
exposure to testing doses of phenolics. There may be a drop in T-
suppressor cells or total T-cell numbers. An overabundance of B-cells 
was interpreted as a reflection of toxic image to the immune system. 
An increase in helper cells, antibody formation, and elevation of 
some immunoglobulins was also noted. Other findings on phenolic 
exposure have been depressed serotonin, elevated histamine and 
prostaglandins, abnormal complement and immune complex formation. 
These compounds can contribute to the toxic overload in PST, or they 
can precipitate an allergic reaction.

Neurologic symptoms: In severe phenol poisoning, initial signs and 
symptoms may include nausea, diaphoresis (heavy perspiration), 
headache, dizziness, and tinnitus (ringing ears). Seizures, coma, 
respiratory depression, and death may ensue quickly. Coma and 
seizures usually occur within minutes to a few hours after exposure 
or after a delay of up to 18 hours. Phenol also may cause 
demyelination and axonal damage of peripheral nerves. Typically, 
transitory central nervous system (CNS) excitation occurs, then 
profound CNS depression ensues rapidly. Metabolic acidosis and acute 
renal failure may complicate the condition. Vomiting and diarrhea are 
common effects of phenol toxicity by any route. Peristalsis is 
increased in the intestine and distribution of blood is altered by 
these phenolics because of sensitizing smooth muscles to epinephrine, 
norepinephrine, and other physiological stimulants.

Nutritional deficiencies will affect the body's ability to detoxify 
foreign chemicals. For example, magnesium is important in over 300 
enzyme systems that relate to Phase and Phase II detoxification; 
however, the average American diet is low in magnesium. The Phase I 
enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are zinc 
dependent, and NAD, the coenzyme form of niacin, activates these two 
enzymes that break down alcohol and acetylaldehyde (AH). Magnesium 
and NAD are both dependent on adequate supplies of vitamin B6, in the 
form P5P. Aldehyde oxidase requires molybdenum. A deficiency of P5P, 
NAD, zinc, magnesium, molybdenum, or the amino acid histidine could 
significantly impair the ability to detoxify those chemicals, 
especially the toxins of candida (acetylaldehyde). 

By supplementing molybdenum and histidine (needed in the molybdenum-
histidine containing enzymes, sulfite oxidase and cysteine 
dioxygenase, that oxidize sulfur), along with iron, and the B-complex 
(preferably in coenzyme form), glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate 
(stimulates synthesis of the GAGs we studied about above, and is 
mildly anti-inflammatory without inhibiting the synthesis of 
Prostaglandins, and more effective when taken together), minerals in 
sulfate form, such as iron sulfate, and Epsom salts (magnesium 
sulfate-taken orally it is a good laxative for those that need it), 
one may supply both the minerals and the sulfate needed to detoxify 
phenols and other metabolites. When glucosamine gives up its sulfate, 
it supplies glutamine. Chondroitin is comprised of N-acetyl-D-
galactosamine and D-glucuronate. Collagen Type II™ may be even better 
for it supplies at least 50 other types of sulfate such as heparan, 
keratan, and dermatan sulfate. Curiously, bread is sulfate rich. This 
program will increase the number and enhance the efficiency of the 
available PST enzymes in doing their job.
Buy a quality brand (one using Good Manufacturing Practices) of 
glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate that uses low molecular weight 
ingredients the use of which will supply adequate GAGs to enable the 
cells to resist infection. There are 4 different methods of 
manufacturing glucosamine capsules. According to sources at Jarrow 
Formulas, both glucosamine hydrochloride and N-Acetyl-glucosamine 
have been stripped of the "sulfate" component in the manufacturing 
process. Neither of these forms are expected to have any anti-viral 
effect against lipid envelope viruses like HIV, EBV, CMV and HHV-6, 
and of course, they would not supply needed sulfate for PST. 
Published scientific research indicates that only the sulfated 
polysaccharides and one sulfated monosaccharide (glucosamine sulfate) 
have a powerful effect against lipid envelope viruses. If the 
word "hydrochloride" or "N-Acetyl" appears anywhere on the label, do 
not buy it unless you are planning to use it exclusively for 
arthritis or rheumatism. Remember to choose capsules instead of 

In addition, take an Epsom salts bath (two cups or more in a tub of 
hot water). It may be best not to use soap as there may be chemical 
reactions that could be adverse. Soak it up through the skin for 20 
minutes, and don't rinse off-and don't worry if the child drinks some 
of the water. This bath has been shown to increase sulfur content of 
the blood up to four times. Sleep is improved immediately, as the 
child is relieved of pain and calmed. 

I should mention that there is a small chance of magnesium toxicity. 
Decreasing kidney function, common in the elderly, may prevent 
magnesium from being excreted normally leading to a toxic condition. 
Initially, symptoms include: drowsiness, lethargy and weakness. At 
higher levels, nausea, vomiting, and serious arrhythmia (irregular 
heart beat) may occur. If this be the cause of these symptoms, they 
will disappear quickly once the use of magnesium bearing products is 
discontinued. -Dr. Richard M. Ratzan, University of Connecticut 
Health Center. This could only occur with very poor kidney function 
for the toxic level is approximately 6000 mg daily. If there has been 
any indication that the child's kidneys are not functioning fully 
(possibly high creatinine levels), check with your doctor before 
using magnesium (or potassium), and have him monitor 
magnesium/potassium levels. Strive for high normal levels. Adequate 
potassium stimulates the kidneys to excrete poisonous body wastes 
(usually toxic protein acids from inadequate protein digestion).

Be sure to filter chlorine, fluoride, and other poisons from the 
water you drink and bath in. Chlorine in bath water is breathed and 
absorbed, especially from hot water. This is important as chlorine is 
a deadly poison. It can produce fatigue and tiredness after the bath. 
Industrial chemist, J.P. Bercz, Ph.D., showed in 1992 that 
chlorinated water alters and destroys unsaturated essential fatty 
acids (EFAs), the building blocks of people's brains and central 
nervous systems. The compound hypochlorite, created when chlorine 
mixes with water, generates excess free radicals; these oxidize EFAs, 
turning them rancid. Both chlorine and fluoride inhibit the stomach's 
ability to produce HCl, and impair the ability of beneficial flora to 
grow in the gut. Do not buy a filter that uses silver as a 
bactericide. It is known to leak into the water and elevate levels in 
the blood dangerously. 

While taking a warm shower or lounging in a hot tub filled with 
chlorinated water one inhales chloroform. Even worse, warm water 
opens the pores, causing the skin to act like a sponge. One will 
absorb and inhale more chlorine in a 10-minute shower than by 
drinking eight glasses of the same water. This irritates the eyes, 
the sinuses, throat, skin and lungs, makes the hair and scalp dry, 
worsening dandruff. It can weaken immunity. A window from the shower 
room open to the outdoors removes chloroform from the shower room 
air, but to prevent absorption of chlorine through the skin, a shower-
head that removes chlorine from shower water is a must. The 
ShowerWise™ filter and shower head can be ordered for $69, plus two 
filters $129. They last about one year. An extension hose can be used 
to fill the tub with filtered water.

For those times when the bath is not convenient (camping), or when 
one wants to increase the amount of magnesium, but bowels are 
sensitive to it, one can have the benefits of the bath with a cream. 
Kyle, for whom it was developed, prefers the cream. Rub 1/2 teaspoon 
of the cream on the tender parts to obtain 250 mg magnesium. The 
cream is especially formulated by Key Pharmacy, 1-800-878-1322 or 1-
416-633-2244, FAX: 1-416-633-3400. Ask for the Epsom Salts Cream. A 4 
oz. jar for $29.89, plus shipping, has approximately 48 servings. All 
ingredients seem safe for our children, for it contains fatty acids, 
a form of lecithin, and magnesium sulfate. The use of the cream 
should avoid the following possibility.

One researcher makes this observation, "I have no doubt that sulfate 
is a substrate to feed (some strains of) candida. It probably takes 
some energy from the SO4 form and excretes it as H2S, and robs the 
energy it may be able to get from reducing the sulfur, excreting 
toxic H2S." H2S is very foul smelling, so if an increased foul-
smelling gas is created in following these recommendations, you will 
need to deal with the yeast overgrowth.

Sulfate is the most oxidized form of sulfur. It doesn't need to be 
oxidized any more, so supplementing or bathing in sulfate supplies 
what is lacking because of the body's inability to oxidize the sulfur 
in foods. Oral sulfate will be poorly absorbed; so, supplement a gram 
or more of sulfate each day. Some will get through. Supplementing 
papain enhances absorption of sulfates. SAMe (SAM) is said to improve 
sulfoxidation, in fact, it is necessary to the manufacture of all 
sulfur-containing compounds in the body. Dr. Jeff Bradstreet, MD, 
father of an autistic child, has this to offer: "If the child has an 
unusual odor at night or their bedclothes do, or if they sweat while 
asleep (PST defect), use methylsulfanylmethane (MSM), 1500 to 3000 
mgs per day. In the study, 83% of autistic children were PST 
abnormal, and MSM should help this. It did in our son's situation." 

MSM works with copper in many functions, and may get depleted with 
copper supplementation or when high copper levels are present. 
Additionally, our soils are depleted of sulfur, and such sulfonyl as 
there is in foods is lost in cooking. MSM is a white, crystalline 
powder that is odorless and somewhat bitter tasting. It mixes in 
water more easily than sugar, and just barely affects the taste. In 
juice or other beverages, it is undetectable. MSM is effective in 
ameliorating gastrointestinal upsets such as that produced by the 
ingestion of aspirin and other pharmaceuticals, or that from 
parasitic infections. Individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms such 
as diarrhea, chronic constipation, nausea, hyperacidity and/or 
epigastric pain (having been reported more effective than Tagamet™), 
or inflammation of mucous membranes also will experience dramatic 
relief. Individuals presenting symptoms of pain and inflammation 
associated with various musculoskeletal system disorders, including 
arthritis, report substantial and long-lasting relief. Those lacking 
in sulfite oxidase cannot metabolize MSM, or the sulfite used in 
Chinese foods or on some green salads, to sulfate, and may get 
headache, dizziness, fatigue, wheezing, leg pain, and other symptoms. 
MSM also seems to cause hair loss when there is heavy metals 
poisoning, particularly mercury. This may be overcome by 
supplementing molybdenum and vitamin B6, and this will enable more 
efficient metabolism in this pathway relieving the sensitivity to 
sulfur-bearing foods, and producing needed sulfates. Many cannot 
tolerate more than 500 mg MSM, yet show very positive benefits from 
even this amount. So, start low and increase dosage as you can 
tolerate it. Always supplement molybdenum when taking MSM. Two 
hundred to 300 mcg a day may be enough, but moly absorbs poorly, and 
adults may require 1000 mcg twice daily for three or four months or 
longer to overcome this aversion to sulfur-bearing foods.

One should note that mercury binds to the -SH (sulphydryl) groups, 
resulting in inactivation of sulfur and blocking of enzyme function, 
producing toxicity. Sulfur is essential in enzymes, hormones, nerve 
tissue, and red blood cells. Mercury also blocks the metabolic action 
of manganese and the entry of calcium ions into cytoplasm. Mercury 
thus has the potential to disturb all metabolic processes. Under 
these conditions MSM should be most helpful.

DMSO is being used as the solvent in transdermal secretin. This is 
essentially the same as MSM. At least one Mom is reported to have 
found good results with DMSO alone. When she added secretin further 
gains were noted, but when she ran out of secretin, the gains 
continued with DMSO alone! DMSO has long had a reputation as a 
panacea for about everything that ails you. A case in point, applying 
it to the abdomen has alleviated all symptoms of colitis and 
Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Both it and MSM work wonders for arthritis. 
To avoid skin dryness, dilute it 15% with distilled water.
If the child can metabolize organic sulfur (like MSM/DMSO) all the 
way to sulfate, then MSM is a good way of increasing sulfate. 
However, if the enzyme sulfite oxidase is not working well, then MSM 
is a bad idea. Sulfite oxidase requires molybdenum as a cofactor, and 
since mercury depletes selenium; and mercury, MSM, oral sulfate, and 
copper tends to deplete molybdenum, selenium and molybdenum must be 
supplemented. Conversely, tungsten inhibits the action of molybdenum 
and thus of the molybdenum-based enzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine 
oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase. This would likely cause an excess of 
molybdenum to accumulate. Thus, both excess mercury and excess 
tungsten would create a shortage of the listed enzymes.

A coenzyme, vitamin B-complex supplement of moderate potency should 
be supplemented. One mother in supplementing molybdenum reports that 
her daughter, who was doing quite well, regressed into severe, 
autistic symptoms for three days, including 18 hours of screaming-
possibly due to detoxifying. Her doctor urged her to cease, but she 
stayed the course, and today her daughter is far and away better! 
This is serious stuff.
Incidentally, a gross deficiency of molybdenum manifests as 
tachycardia, headache, mental disturbances, and coma. An excess 
intake of 10-15 mg daily (for adults) can cause a gout like syndrome 
because of an elevated production of uric acid. Dosage range should 
not exceed 1 mg per day (adult), bearing in mind that more than 0.5 
mg causes a loss of copper. Very little molybdenum is needed, but it 
is an important element in several important metalloenzymes (xanthine 
oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase) that participate in 
crucial liver detoxification pathways.
Until the body regains its ability to oxidize sulfur, it may be 
desirable to limit high sulfur containing foods (cruciferous 
vegetables, broccoli, onions, garlic, turnips, eggs, red meat, 
turkey, dairy products); and supplements like alpha lipoic acid, 
glutathione, L-cysteine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC can be better 
tolerated when used with its team mates, the amino acids glycine and 
glutamine in ratio 2:1:1, and the B-complex vitamins. It should be 
tried for the glutathione it produces is so vital). Those who have a 
problem with these foods likely have an impaired sulfur oxidation (a 
cysteine oxidation) problem, and should be alert to cysteine 
toxicity. Even those who do not oxidize cysteine well can usually 
tolerate NAC at 500 mg daily (adult dose) without contributing to 
cysteine toxicity. Supplying any of these sulfur foods may be a 
problem to some of these kids who do not oxidize sulfur well. One 
indicator may be fatigue after eating these. Unless a problem is 
observed, however, these foods should not be restricted unnecessarily 
for that will cause a reduction of the vital antioxidant glutathione, 
and interfere with the conversion of T4 thyroid hormone into T3.

Blueberry extract, grape seed extract, pine tree bark, Resveratrol, 
green tea, and other things have phenols, salicylates, and other 
stuff that are normally detoxified by PST. 

Some recent studies indicate that salicylate has an effect on PST, an 
enzyme needed by the brain and the gut to metabolize high-phenolic 
compounds like the artificial colors and flavors. Salicylate 
suppresses PST enzymes up to 50%. Phase II has been shown to be low 
for people with ADHD or autism. Excess boron interferes with the 
metabolism (breakdown and excretion) of phenols. Ritalin, used in the 
treatment of ADHD, inhibits the metabolism of coumarins (phenols). 
Supplementing boron reduces calcium losses by 30%, but excess boron 
increases copper in the body. High copper levels reduce the vitamin 
B1, and this reduces oxygen supply to the brain. Excess boron reduces 
the vitamin B6 levels in the body also. Boron is found in apples, 
pears, grapes, nuts, leafy green vegetables, and legumes. Supplying 
these substances, especially apples, pears, and grapes, or their 
juices in large amounts to PST deficient children, will cause a build 
up of phenols, amines, salicylates, and other toxic substances 
normally cleared by PST.

In fact, any chemicals with a high proportion of phenolic groupings 
will have this effect, and will enhance the problems referred to 
above. Methyl Salicylate: (Salicylic Acid, Wintergreen Oil) is one 
such. This phenolic is toxic in moderate concentrations. It is used 
in birch beer, chewing gum (in high concentrations), grape, mint, 
root beer, sarsaparilla, spice, walnut and wintergreen flavor in 
baked goods, beverages, candy, ice cream, ices, syrups, mint-scented 
cleaning products, and in perfumery. Symptoms of methyl salicylate 
poisoning are acidosis, pulmonary edema and vomiting. This compound 
has lethal drug interactions with many substances including 
anticoagulants, tricyclic antidepressants, indocin, and methotrexate. 
Gallic Acid is another. Gallic Acid is found in food coloring agents 
and is, unquestionably, the most important of all phenolics. 
Neutralization of gallic acid is the basis of the Feingold Diet, 
which eliminates salicylates.

Beef patties containing 30% fat and grilled over mesquite wood had 24 
aromatics at a total concentration of 549 g/kg of meat while the same 
beef cooked over hardwood (hickory) charcoal had 16 aromatics 
representing 68 g/kg. A heavy smoke flavor would produce a higher 
concentration of phenols than light smoke. Hamburgers barbecued with 
lots of smoke (especially in a covered grill) may be a potential 
phenol problem as well as smoked bacon. Smoked bacon cured with 
nitrates is even more toxic than phenols by themselves.

Additionally, fruit sugars will feed the candida causing an explosive 
overgrowth with increased acetylaldehyde toxins. Candida also 
produces arabinose and tartaric acid. Dr. Wm. Shaw of The Great 
Plains Laboratory, Inc. thinks that high concentrations of arabinose 
may inhibit the liver's production of glucose, causing hypoglycemia 
and impairing neurological function. Cheney described two boys 
diagnosed as autistic. Their urine test showed high levels of 
arabinose and tartaric acid. Tartaric acid looks like malic acid, and 
poisons cells by interfering with the Krebs Cycle. Both boys had been 
on repeated antibiotics for recurring ear infections, and had not 
been autistic until recently. They were about six years old. In these 
unusual cases, when the boys were treated with Nystatin™, they both 
recovered, and were no longer autistic! 

Many coloring materials (porphyrin), whether of natural or synthetic 
origin, possess phenolic groupings. For this reason, some 
practitioners recommend the removal of all pigmented foods from the 
diet (Sara's Diet). This may not be necessary due to the nature of 
enzyme activity (the greater the need, the faster it works), but you 
must at least eliminate juices (or limit to a little pear juice), and 
eliminate all artificial colors and flavors. Avoid "deodorant" soaps 
and deodorants containing "triclosan," a chlorophenol. It should be 
noted that problems relating to inhibition of cytochrome p450 liver 
enzymes (Phase I liver detoxing) are involved with porphyrin in the 
foods and supplements named in the above paragraphs. Additionally, 
potatoes, tomatoes, and egg plant contain glycoalkaloids, that, even 
in small amounts, can greatly slow the metabolism of anesthetic 
agents and muscle relaxants, requiring up to 10 times longer to 
recover from an anesthetic.
DPT immunization in inbred mice has been shown to result in decreased 
synthesis of cytochrome p450, and of phosphosulfotransferase, and of 
the messenger RNA necessary for their production. A decrease in 
production of the liver enzymes phosphosulfotransferase and the 
cytochrome p450 family of enzymes causes failure to break down food 
proteins (including gluten and casein) into amino acids. The 
resulting intermediates, called peptides, can cross into the blood. 
Anything that further inhibits these cytochrome p450 liver enzymes 
would compound the problem of toxicity, and further contribute to the 
opioid problem. "Treatment of the latter (candida) with conventional 
synthetic antifungal agents often causes impairment of liver 
detoxification functions, and a decrease in the synthesis of 
phosphosulfotransferase, an enzyme necessary to cleave food proteins, 
e.g. casein, into smaller easily absorbable peptides."-Dr. Hugh 
Fudenberg, MD. Many drugs and opiates interfere with the immune 
system. Opiates increase apoptosis (cell suicide) of T-lymphocytes 
from the norm of 5% to 30%. Additionally, multiple chemical 
sensitivities and liver pain would likely result. 

Metallothioneins (MT) are small (short) cysteine-rich proteins that 
do more than just help cells detoxify, scavenge free radicals, and 
regulate metals. They are involved in cell growth and cell 
specialization (differentiation) and homeostasis. Growth factors such 
as epidermal growth factor (EGF) cause rat liver cells to grow and 
secrete MT. Zinc also stimulated MT and EGF+ zinc made the effect 
additive (the EGF effect plus the zinc effect). It is believed that 
lots of growth factors that influence liver regeneration play a major 
role in regulating MT synthesis and secretion.

William Walsh, senior scientist, Health Research Institute and 
Pfeiffer Treatment Center of Naperville, Ill., in his study of 503 
children with PDD, Asperger's, and autism, found all but four were 
missing MT, which the body needs to bind with toxic metals-like 
mercury-so it can be excreted before it damages the brain and gut. 
Walsh believes a child who lacks MT may develop any of these 
developmental conditions if he gets mercury in his system. This may 
explain why some children become autistic after receiving a mercury-
enhanced vaccine. It also explains why autism hits before the age of 
3. After that, the brain and the gut have matured enough to withstand 
further doses of mercury, although the child may develop ADD and 
lesser developmental problems.

Glutathione (along with L-histidine and zinc) is a key resource for 
the formation of metallothionein (MT). This molecule prevents 
cellular toxicity by creating a stable storage molecule for excesses 
of both essential minerals such as copper and zinc, and toxic metals 
such as mercury and cadmium. In 1995, Sato et al. reported that 
inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase induces decreased expression 
of MT. Walsh recently reported that 91% of autistic patients had a 
deficiency of metallothionein, and suggested this deficiency is 
likely to be genetic, and may be a primary susceptibility factor for 
neurotoxicity from heavy metals including vaccinal thimerosal. The 
cumulative effects of ingesting mercury can cause brain damage. 
Thimerosal, a mercury compound, is used as a preservative in 
hepatitis B, diphtheria, pertussis and acellular pertussis, tetanus 
and HIB vaccines. Most infants have received a total of 15 doses of 
these mercury-containing vaccines by age six months! Studies document 
thimerosal as both an allergen and a toxin to sodium channels.

Another interesting connection: Some cysteine is broken down into 
taurine and sulfates unless the essential enzyme cysteine dioxygenase 
is lacking. In some cases, the sulfur-oxidation of cysteine is 
defective. About 30% of the population are slow sulfur-oxidizers and 
2% are "nul" S-oxidizers, but in a small study of autistics, 45.8% 
were "null" oxidizers! It appears that, in a high percentage of 
autistics, oxidation of cysteine is impaired. Slow S-oxidation 
appears to be inherited, and has been associated with a number of 
disease states, especially rheumatoid arthritis and allergy that are 
five times more common in the families of autistic children. One 
study of severe food and chemical allergies found 94% had low S-
oxidation capacity and reduced plasma sulfate. It appears, then, that 
the PST-troubled kid has numerous allergies, a light-colored stool, a 
failure to digest fat from a lack of taurine-formed bile, and is 
phenol toxic for want of sulfates. This condition might be indicated 
by an elevated copper and mercury reading indicating not enough bile 
is being made by the liver. This can sometimes be improved by taking 
taurine, and glycine, and the overall condition can be improved by 
supplementing sulfates. This seems to be added reason to supplement L-
histidine and molybdenum. The liver should be supported as indicated 
elsewhere in this paper. Clinical studies showing that autistic 
children with significant allergy problems have elevated 
cysteine/sulfate ratios in their blood, and there are other 
indications of disordered sulfur amino-acid chemistry.

High plasma cysteine/sulfate ratio indicates a problem of the body 
either consuming or wasting sulfate too fast, or not properly forming 
sulfate in the enzyme cascade. Cysteine itself is usually in normal 
or elevated range, and the problems are concerning the sulfate. 
Sulfite oxidase is the enzyme at the end of the metabolic chain from 
methionine > cysteine > taurine > sulfate, and is a histidine-
molybdenum enzyme. Supplementing sulfate would surely be a benefit 
for the problems directly related to not having enough sulfate for 
completing detox and sulfating GAGs. However, some health problems 
may be caused by the intermediate products of the impaired sulfur-
oxidation, and not just the lack of sulfate. High plasma or tissue 
cysteine, that is, cysteine that is above the normal range, 
irrespective of the sulfate levels, is actually quite a different 
problem, indicating a failure of the first enzyme step in 
metabolizing cysteine. This enzyme, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), is an 
iron-histidine enzyme.

People with high cysteine levels will report discomfort and illness 
as a direct result of eating methionine/cysteine rich meats and 
plants such as garlic and broccoli. Don't take the glutathione 
precursors that contribute directly to the cysteine pool. Both L-
cysteine and whole glutathione do this. It's of interest to note that 
cysteine is commonly incorporated into pharmacological preparations 
as a stabilizer for peptides such as secretin. Standard chemical 
calculations show that a rapid infusion of 1.0 mg cysteine HCl, as 
contained in a vial of porcine secretin, will produce a significant 
increase in the plasma concentration of cysteine. Since secretin is 
not currently given in a weight dependent manner, the lower the 
weight of an individual, the greater the increase in cysteine's 
plasma concentration. The increase in the cysteine level from one 
vial of secretin is negligible in adults, but almost doubles the 
plasma concentration in a 30 pound child. This could have very 
definite toxic effects for some with a sulfoxidation problem (PST 

Cysteine possesses excitatory neurotransmitter properties, acting 
centrally and peripherally at NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) type 
glutamate receptors (Parsons et al., 1997). This effect in the CNS 
may be responsible for hyperactivity reported by some parents soon 
after a child receives secretin. In the presence of bicarbonate ions 
in the GI tract (such as the bicarbonate-rich pancreatic fluid 
induced by secretin), cysteine becomes a potent excitotoxin (Williams 
et al., 1991) which could account for anecdotal reports of loose 
stools or diarrhea a few days after a secretin infusion. NAC does not 
contribute directly to cysteine toxicity unless you take massive 
amounts of it. Around 500 mg/day (adult) you stand to benefit without 
significantly increasing risk of cysteine toxicity. The common thread 
in all of these failing enzymes is the need for adequate L-histidine. 
L-histidine is used by the body in many metal/mineral bearing 
enzymes, storage molecules, transport and excretion molecules. People 
having metal/mineral enzyme problems, or metal/mineral disregulations 
should be looking at supplementing this amino acid in addition to 
adjusting their source of minerals such as molybdenum, copper, iron, 
zinc, and manganese. In fact, histidine is such a powerful chelator 
of heavy metals and minerals that it should probably be used only 
under medical supervision lest a deficiency of necessary minerals be 
Following the Feingold diet plan will benefit these kids by exclusion 
of foods known to include phenols. Salicylates, dyes, sodium 
benzoate, BHA, BHT, FD&C yellow dye #5 (tartrazine), vanillin, 
eugenol are all phenolic compounds. For a small membership fee, The 
Feingold Association will provide a listing of foods to avoid, as 
well as a continually updated list of safe foods. Their address is: 
Feingold Association of the United States, PO Box 6550, Alexandria, 
VA 22306, 1-800-321-3287.

Short of avoiding all these otherwise good foods containing phenols 
and malonic acid, what can a PST child do to counter these 
undesirable happenings? Take a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar 
several times a day as recommended elsewhere in this paper. Two 
mothers report that Cranberry juice has reduced or eliminated these 
effects, probably by reducing the yeast overgrowth. One should use 
Schizandra Chinensis, a very important liver herb. It protects the 
liver function and tissue from toxic damage, and has demonstrated a 
clinically significant influence on the detoxification process. 
Schizandra extract enhances liver glutathione status, and increases 
Phase I and Phase II liver enzyme activity. It has no toxic activity. 
Glutathione is a substrate for Phase II activity, and particularly 
for glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a Phase II enzyme that adds a 
glutathione group to Phase I products. 

Ambrotose®, Phyt•Aloe®, Dandelion, Ligustrum lucidum, Bovine 
colostrum, Shark liver oil, excipients of powdered rice bran, 
Schizandra, Green Tea, vitamins A, C, E, undenatured whey, and wheat 
grass all produce glutathione effectively without any adverse 
toxicity or without messing with the Phase I or Phase II enzyme 
activity. A number of foods stimulate the body to produce more of the 
Phase II enzymes. These foods have been shown to improve liver 
detoxification, and to decrease the risk of developing cancer. They 
include members of the cabbage family (crucifers), which includes not 
only cabbage but broccoli, cauliflower, bok choy, Brussels sprouts, 
green onions, garlic, and kale (all but one are in Phyt•Aloe®). These 
vegetables contain compounds called aryl isothiocyanates which 
directly stimulate the activity of an enzyme, glutathione S-
transferase, an important component of the Phase II system. 
Unfortunately, these same vegetables contain high levels of phenols 
which is the toxin not being excreted adequately in PST kids. They 
also supply high sulfur that some cannot tolerate, and of course, 
some are allergic to them.

Some have found Essaic™ tea helpful in this condition. Dr. Hugh 
Fudenberg uses it with his immune-compromised patients, and states 
that it heals the endothelial cells of the GI tract and the liver. It 
is a proprietary formula of Burdock Root (arctium lappa), Slippery 
Elm (ulmas vulva), Sheep Sorrel (rumex acetosella), and Indian 
Rhubarb (rheuma palmatum). It probably should be used intermittently 
for Burdock is toxic to the liver and peripheral blood mononuclear 
cells (PBMC). Sheep Sorrel enhances cytochrome p450 (Phase I) liver 
enzymes which will deplete fatty acids, steroids, estrogen, 
Prostaglandins, retinoic acid (vitamin A), glycine, and body alcohols 
faster, and make many drugs less effective. At least be aware, and if 
you use it, supplement fatty acids (Evening Primrose and cod-liver 
oil if your child can tolerate them) and glycine, and have the doctor 
watch the liver and PBMC functions carefully. For limited periods, 
use of herbs that enhance Phase I liver enzyme action would seem 
beneficial to those without the PST/sulfoxidation problem. It can be 
dangerous for PST kids because the more toxic metabolites of Phase I 
action cannot be cleared effectively by PST (Phase II deficient) 

Nevertheless, enhancement of Phase I could enhance breakdown of 
protein to amino acids, and limit the peptides that upon entering the 
blood stream produce opioids. Some nontoxic herbs that do that are 
Milk Thistle, Bistort, Ginger, Royal Jelly, and the aforementioned 
sheep sorrel. Dandelion is nontoxic, a good chelator and detoxifier, 
and has no effect on the Phase I function, thus it may be the best 
choice for strengthening the liver function. I strongly advise that 
you get the small book "The Liver Cleansing Diet, Love Your Liver and 
Live Longer" by Sandra Cabot, MD, and follow this liver friendly 
guide to eating. Half the small book consists of recipes. It can make 
a world of difference when the liver functions as it should-otherwise 
nothing else really works.
Three things that build the liver, even reversing hepatitis, are 
Alpha Lipoic acid, Milk Thistle (for short time use), and selenium. 

Still on the topic of PST kids, if you are looking for a phase I AND 
II liver support here is a product:


I suggest browsing through and looking at ALL of their products. I 
have ordered the liver support above and one of their immune supports 
and plan on trying others. The thing I like best is they are all 
liquid drops!